Painting forÂ Performance removes the mystery from painting and gives beginners the terms, tools, and techniques to approach their unpainted set with confidence. Covering the mechanics of paint and its many implementations in set design, this book provides simple and effective step-by-step instructions for painting a variety of surfaces to look great on stage.
Painting Restoration Before the Restauration: The Origins of the Profession in France Aby A. Massing The art of painting restoration is almost as old as the art of painting itself. Accidents and time inevitably alter the appearance of a painting, and these changes begin as soon as it leaves the artist's easel. Purposeful alterations due to changes in taste have also contributed to transformations that paintings often underwent. Clearly the type of restoration procedures considered ethically acceptable have changed over the centuries. From the Renaissance until the end of the nineteenth century, European paintings were considered as two-dimensional illusions of a three-dimensional space, and any disruption to this illusion was considered as damage requiring repair. There was no acknowledgement of painting supports as an integral part of a picture; only the paint layer and the subject represented were appreciated. As a result, panels were often thinned and cradled in order to flatten the painted surface so that the image depicted could be viewed with less distraction. Supports were even considered replaceable. Total transfer of a painted surface onto a new surface was an acceptable procedure in the eighteenth century even until the mid-twentieth century. Invisible retouching was used with the intent of returning the illusion of the painted surface to its original state; the history of the work was not important. Until recent times, it was even acceptable to alter the format of a work of art to fit a frame or a space on the wall. Traditionally, if a painting was accidentally damaged or if adjustments were required, a painter was entrusted with this task. In the past, the professions of painter and painting restorer overlapped, and both were trained as apprentices. Gradually the professional painting restorer appeared in Europe, and by the mid-eighteenth century, the profession was established. Earlier examples of professional restorers, especially in Italy, have been recorded while in other European countries, such as Britain, the career of the professional painting restorer began much later. During the later part of the eighteenth century in France, the painting restorers of the French Royal Collection became celebrated throughout Europe for their achievements. The political situation had an important influence on the development of the profession in France. The reigns of Francois I (1515-47), Louis XIV (1643-1715), Louis XVI (1774-93), and then the coup detat by Napoleon Bonaparte and the First Napoleonic Empire (1804-14) led to an increasing centralisation of the French Empire. The arts were meant to reflect the power of the state; thus Louis XIV and his political advisor and Surintendent from 1661 to 1685, Jean-Baptiste Colbert (1619-83), became the patrons of the French Academie de Peinture et Sculpture founded in 1648. A revision of the Academys statutes in 1665 required students to submit annually drawings that focused on the heroic actions of the king. Paintings conferred status on their owner in this instance the king and the French nation. It then became a necessity to have the paintings on display looking their best, and the skill of the French painting restorers was even used as a justification for Napoleons policy of confiscation of works of art from all over Europe. The relationship between the French governments administration, firstly under the Ancien Regime, then under the new Republic, and the painting restorers they employed and supervised is related in this book. The manner in which changes occurred involves colourful personalities whose stories are often amusing and sometimes poignant, but above all they help us to understand the present-day situation. For during the turbulent years of the French Revolution new patterns emerged, which to a large extent remained in place in France for over two centuries.
The subject of this book is the so-called London Qazv?n?, an early 14th-century illustrated Arabic copy of al-Qazv?n?'s The Wonders of Creation and the Oddities of Existing Things, which was acquired by the British Library in 1983 (Or. 14140). As is commonly the case for copies of this text, the London Qazv?n? is lavishly illustrated, with 368 extant paintings out of the estimated original ca. 520.
Its large format, ambitious illustrative cycle and the fine quality of many of the illustrations suggest that the atelier where it was produced must have been well-established and able to attract craftsmen from different parts of the Ilkhanid area. It also suggests that its patron was wealthy and curious about scientific, encyclopedic and caj?'ib literature, and keen to experiment with the illustration of new texts like this work, which had been composed by the author only two or three decades earlier. The only centre that was capable of gathering such artistic influences ranging from Anatolia to Mesopotamia appears to have been Mosul.
The London Qazv?n? is an important newly surfaced document for the study of early illustrated Arabic copies of this text, representing the second earliest known surviving manuscript, as well as for the study of Ilkhanid painting. In a single and unique manuscript are gathered earlier Mesopotamian painting traditions, North Jaziran-Seljuq elements, Anatolian inspirations, the latest changes brought about after the advent of the Mongols, and a number of illustrations of extraordinary subjects which escape a proper classification.
"Under all his stories there ebbs and flows a kind of tempered melancholy, a sense of seeking and not finding...." I take the words from a little book on Joseph Conrad by Wilson Follett, privately printed, and now, I believe, out of print. They define both the mood of the stories as works of art and their burden and direction as criticisms of life. Like Dreiser, Conrad is forever fascinated by the "immense indifference of things," the tragic vanity of the blind groping that we call aspiration, the profound meaninglessness of life-fascinated, and left wondering.
Developed by New Zealand reading specialist and author, Pam Holden, this exciting reading program offers an extensive range of illustrated fiction and photographic non-fiction titles at graded levels. Red Rocket Readers offer a carefully controlled sequence of challenges throughout the levels to ensure students progress with confidence and enthusiasm.
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